What are the most common Foot Deformities?
Many infants have skew foot deformity, in one or both feet. The shape of the foot is characterized by a flattening of the longitudinal arch and the foot bending inward when walking. It often looks like a “C” shape. In most cases, the skew foot corrects itself.
Claw foot is the opposite of flat foot in that the inside and outside longitudinal arches are considerably more prominent. This leads to overloading of the forefoot and heel. A claw foot can be hereditary or it can develop following paralysis or nerve damage in the muscles of the feet. A claw foot is not necessarily harmful and may not require treatment, but it can cause pain or result in the development of other disorders.
Splay foot (pes transversovalgus) is a very common foot deformity that is also known colloquially as “flat foot”. The underside ball of the foot is flattened causing the forefoot to broaden. Obesity, overstrain in sports and poorly trained muscles of the feet can often cause splay foot. This condition often causes load-dependent pain while walking and standing, and usually dissipates while resting or relieving weight from the foot.
A calcaneal spur (heel spur) is a bony outgrowth from the heel bone. They are often painless but can cause heel pain and are frequently associated with plantar fasciitis. If a heel spur is painful and left
untreated, normal walking is very painful. The causes include the wrong footwear, obesity, excessive loading during sports or long periods of standing.
This is a disorder of the joint located at the base of the big toe. It can cause pain and stiffness in the joint which, in time, becomes increasingly harder to flex the joint. It is an arthritic condition caused by wear and tear. The disorder can be inherited or caused by injuries and harmful stresses.
Hallux valgus, also known as a bunion, is the most common forefoot deformity. A hallux valgus is when the first metatarsal bone deviates outwards towards the outside of the foot. This widens the area around the ball of the foot. However, the tendon is too short for this and pulls the big toe to the side.